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Category Hardware
Created 2017-09-03
Owner PKKOO5
Title rose gold bvlgari ring b.zero1 imitation day-to-da
Description Turkey's pugnacious president

From humble beginnings Recep Tayyip Erdogan has grown into a political giant, reshaping Turkey more than any leader since Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, the revered father of the modern republic.

The referendum "Yes" vote gives him the green light to create a muscular presidency, with powers to personally appoint or dismiss ministers, select judges and rule by decree if he deems it necessary.

"For the first time in the history of the republic, we are changing our ruling system through civil politics," he told flag waving supporters on 16 April.

It was a veiled reminder of the 15 July coup attempt, when his grip on power was seriously challenged by military officers.

An all powerful presidency, he argues, is a guarantee that the political instability that used to plague Turkey will not return.

In 1960 and three more times in later decades the Turkish army intervened in politics, seeing itself as the guarantor of Ataturk's secular republic.

Its shadowy nationalist influence behind the scenes came to be known as "the deep state".

President Erdogan's powerful AK Party (AKP), rooted in conservative Islam, has shown a fierce determination to clip the military's wings. AKP stands for Justice and Development replica bulgari gold ring Party.

During his tenure Turkish courts have jailed dozens of officers for alleged coup plots, and the ranks have been purged since the attempt to topple him last year.

Erdogan's Turkey: The full story

Turkey country profile

Why did Turkey hold a referendum?

The failed coup claimed at least 240 lives and, according to his officials, also came close to killing Mr Erdogan, who had been staying at the Aegean holiday resort of Marmaris.

Yet he was back in less than 12 hours, having outmanoeuvred the plotters.

He appeared on national TV and rallied supporters in Istanbul, declaring he was the "chief commander". But the strain on the president was clear when he sobbed openly while giving a speech at the funeral of a close friend, shot with his son by mutinous soldiers.

To his supporters he has bvlgari men ring replica brought Turkey years of economic growth, but to his critics he is an autocratic leader intolerant of dissent who harshly silences anyone who opposes him.

And dissenters range from a 16 year old arrested for insulting the president to a former Miss Turkey who got into trouble for sharing a poem critical of the Turkish president.

The voting pattern in the 16 April constitutional referendum shows a deeply polarised country. Mr Erdogan's Yes camp got 51.4% a narrower margin of victory than he would have liked.

As expected, he won in the Anatolian heartland and Black Sea region. But the No camp won in the big cities Ankara, Istanbul and Izmir as well as on the Mediterranean coast and in the Kurdish majority south east.

Purge of public servantsMr Erdogan came to power in 2002, a year after the formation of the AKP. He spent 11 years as Turkey's prime minister before becoming the country's first directly elected president in August 2014 a supposedly ceremonial role.

His silencing of critics has caused alarm abroad, contributing to frosty relations with the EU which have stalled Turkey's bid to join the bloc.

Since the thwarted coup, nearly 50,000 people have been detained, including many soldiers, journalists, lawyers, police officers, academics and Kurdish politicians.

Mr Erdogan says the plot was engineered by Fethullah Gulen, a US based Muslim cleric who used to be an ally.

Mr Gulen heads a global network of supporters eternity ring replica cartier including Gulen schools and his Hizmet fake bvlgari b zero ring pink gold movement has penetrated many areas of Turkish life. But he strongly denies plotting against the AKP government. His bodyguards harassed reporters in the US, and a German satirist was investigated in his home country for offending Mr Erdogan on TV.

In the run up to the referendum Mr Erdogan was enraged by German and Dutch bans on his ministers addressing political rallies among the Turkish diaspora.
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