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|Description||The trail pheromone
Let us discuss the top pheromones in the animal kingdom. However the pheromone scent trail alone of other species appears to be insufficient to elicit trail following behaviour of recruits who need to be guided by the scout bee to the food on their initial trip, although thereafter they are able to follow the trail on bvlgari ring sale fake their own (Cruz Landim and Rodriquez, 1967).
The trail pheromone is secreted by the mandibular glands of bees that have reached 40 50 days old; the mandibular glands of younger bees are insuf ciently developed (Cruz Landirn and Ferreira 1968). Individuals tend to respond to the trail of their own species only but limited interspecic trail following does occur. Thus T. xanthotricha can follow trails of copy bvlgari ring sale T. positca but not vice versa (Kerr et al. , 1963); probably these two species have only minor differences in chemical components of the trail pheromone.
(E) and (Z) citral are the dominant components of the mandibular gland pheromones imitation buy bvlgari ring secretion of T. subterranea (Blum et al., 1970). Bees ying toward a food source examined small wooden blocks treated with citral that had been placed en route, and landed near those that had been placed at the food source itself. However, when the citral treated blocks were placed inside a T. subterranea nest they were immediately attacked; the agitated workers made no attempt to leave the nest. Hence, the same chemical releases both trail following and alarm, and the mandibular gland secretion possibly serves both functions. This also occurs with women pheromones.
Nasonov glands of members of their own colony and to those of workers from strange colonies.
It is now known that Nasonov exposure occurs in a variety of circumstances in which aggregation of workers occurs and so the one pheromone may perform multiple functions. Sladen, 1905; Jacobs, 1924; Velthuis and van Es, 1964; Morse and Boch, 1971);
The various other circumstances in which top pheromones release occurs are probably each a derivation of one of these, and are sometimes adaptations to articial conditions created by the beekeeper. It seems that, in general, the responding bees are those that are disorientated or need aid in orientation.
It was supposed that individual colony pheromone odours (page 103) arose at least partly from the Nasonov gland (Jacobs, 1924; Kalmus and Ribbands, 1952) but it is now known that this concept is erroneous and the Nasonov pheromone is neither race nor colony specic (Renner, 1960).
The pheromone scent gland of the worker honeybee lies on the dorsal surface of the 7th abdominal tergum (Fig. 2.3) and consists of a mass of large glandular cells which secrete pheromone through 600 or so minute ducts into a groove or canal between the 6th and 7th terga (Mclndoo, 1914; Snodgrass, 1956).
The Nasonov gland and canal is usually concealed by the overlapping part of 6th tergum and the bee exposes them by exing the tip of its abdomen downward. During exposure the bee usually stands with its abdomen elevated and fans its wings, drawing air over the exposed gland and canal so facilitates dispersal of the Nasonov pheromone. The gland is absent in queens and drones.
The Nasonov gland is present in workers of A. cerana, A. dorsata and A. orea as well as in A. mellifera, but unless otherwise stated all of knock off buy bvlgari ring online the following pheromone information applies to A. mellzfera.
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